The Eastern Himalayan region is large and complex in topography and diversity. The range of habitat types is similar to the Western Himalayas in some respects, although the biogeographical and evolutionary linkages of the flora and fauna are distinct. Due to these differences, patterns of species richness and endemism in the Eastern Himalaya are high and it is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots. In recent years, many species new to science have been discovered in this region, including mammals and birds. This highlights that much of Eastern Himalaya’s biodiversity still remains unknown to science. Many of the endemic flora and fauna have restricted distributions, and their populations are threatened with extinction. Multiple sites will ideally have to be established here to capture this diversity but, in Phase 1, a transect from Pakhui Tiger Reserve in the foothills through Eagle Nest Wildlife Sanctuary and up to Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh will be established.